The PDF report suggests that others cite it thus:
Aronson, J., Cohen, G., McColskey, W., Montrosse, B., Lewis, K., and Mooney, K. (2009). Reducing stereotype threat in classrooms: a review of social-psychological intervention studies on improving the achievement of Black students (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2009–No. 076). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.
Impressive-looking, isn't it?
The very first paragraph is an example of the unintentionally clumsy and very wordy language you'd expect of a hoaxing Negro who misoccupies a position of respectability.
Stereotype threat arises from a fear among members of a group of reinforcing negative stereotypes about the intellectual ability of the group. The report identifies three randomized controlled trial studies that use classroom-based strategies to reduce stereotype threat and improve the academic performance of Black students, narrowing their achievement gap with White students.
Why say "randomized controlled trial studies"? A real scientist would say, simply, "controlled studies."
Also, notice the confusing way the first sentence is constructed. As you read it, you can't be sure what kind of "group" is being referred to. At first you think it's a group of people ("members of a group"). Then you think the writer is speaking of a group of stereotypes ("a group of reinforcing negative stereotypes"). And then you return to the opinion that the writer refers to people ("the intellectual ability of the group"). A more intelligent writer would have written in such a way that the confusion did not occur.
The front matter also states that the "Reducing Stereotype Threat" report meets the standards of the Institute of Education Sciences as a scientific study. The proper reply to that, I think, is "More's the pity."
"Reducing Stereotype threat" is a synthesis of three identified studies, as follows:
(1) Blackwell, Trzesniewski, and Dweck 2007, “Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention.”
This study seems to be based on a confusion of intelligence with acquired skill in academic performance. The idea is that as someone learns, he become more intelligent. Not so.
Intelligence is the neural capacity and efficiency that makes learning skills possible. It is mostly inherited. It is not something acquired through practice. Intelligence is not a skill.*
Although to some extent, learning involves skills that are acquired through practice, there is only so much that practice can do for anyone. Once a student reaches his point of diminishing marginal returns on his time spent improving learning-related skills, then his learning ability is limited by his intelligence, which is what determines where that point is. It remains the case, then, that Blacks are inferior to Whites in academic achievement, simply because Blacks are inferior to White in intelligence (generally speaking).
Hence, the racial gaps in measures of academic achievement cannot be closed by any kind of "social" intervention. The entire effort of leftist racial egalitarians to prove otherwise can be compared to an effort by Honda executives to discover which color they'd have to paint a Civic so that it would become speedier than a Ferrari.
(2) Good, Aronson, and Inzlicht 2003, “Improving adolescents’ standardized test performance: an intervention to reduce the effects of stereotype threat.”
This study seems to be focused on "the power of positive thinking," or, in other words, that some or all of the Black shortfall in measured intelligence is simply the result of Blacks lacking confidence with respect to their learning abilities.
Which is nonsense, of course. Nothing of this kind could account for the Gaussian shape of the Black IQ distribution, nor for the persistence of the Black IQ deficit across a hundred years of testing, and across every part of the world where Blacks have been tested, including parts in which Blacks have been in political control of government for many years and ought not to be lacking in any sort of confidence.
(3) Cohen, Garcia, Apfel, and Master 2006, “Reducing the racial achievement gap: A social-psychological intervention."
According to this study, low Black test scores are the result of depression or other bad feelings related to perceived inadequacy. The authors believe that extracurricular activities at which Blacks often excel should be come funded parts of school curricula, so that Black students can carry an uplifted, empowered feeling from the basketball court into their calculus classes.
So that's the latest big whoop by the leftist racial egalitarians on the gaps in measures of academic achievement. The package is pretty, but the quality of the content seems rather poor. All three of the studies which the IES synthesis relies on consist of nothing more than a rehash of long-ago discredited ideas that had merited only skepticism from the very start.
*Just as an example, consider the computer game called Minesweeper. That's a game that comes, or once came, packaged with Windows and consists of a square board covered by square panels, each of which conceals either a number or a "bomb." If you position your mouse pointer over a panel, and click the left button on the mouse, you'll uncover whatever was hidden. If you reveal a bomb, you lose. The object of the game is to clear the entire board without triggering any of the bombs.
Someone just starting to play Minesweeper (on the intermediate level) might require three or four minutes to finish a game, if he takes care to make a serious effort to win. That's because the player will not yet have learned the specific arithmetic skills needed for more rapid completion. But if the player persists in playing Minesweeper very frequently for two weeks or so, he can usually reduce his completion time by a factor of three or more, as his mind becomes habituated to the relevant skills. You might suppose that the player's brain gradually devotes more neural pathways to the accomplishment of a job it must frequently do.
Has this process increased his intelligence? No.
What has happened is that the player applied whatever intelligence he has to learning a skill. His intelligence can be roughly measured by the (consistently) lowest time in which he can complete a game of Minesweeper, after practice has done him as much good as it can. His intelligence has not changed.
Part 2. Unga Bunga Binga Banga Bonga Banga Boo! Cheating on the CRCT At Black Schools in Georgia!
In the State of Georgia, it has been customary to decide whether a student in a public elementary or middle school deserves to be promoted to the next grade, or whether he should be retained a year in his current grade, by his score on the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT).
But a disturbing notice was published by The Atlanta Journal-Constitution about some schools tampering with scores on that test. Certain public elementary and middle schools, many of them in the Atlanta area, appear to have been cheating to help more of their students pass to the next grade.
Atlanta School District Superintendent Beverly Hall says she doubts that any cheating has occurred, despite a preliminary state investigation that says otherwise, but that she will fully cooperate with a more extensive investigation that is currently going on.
Atlanta Journal-Constitution staff writers Heather Vogell and John Perry have this to say about the test scores:
It might be that the pressure on schools, from the federal government's "No Child Left Behind" policy, in states with substantial minority populations and significant racial gaps, has motivated some of whatever cheating might be occurring.
"Statewide, more than half of elementary and middle schools had at least one classroom where erasure marks were so unusual that cheating may have occurred, the analysis shows. State and local officials will take follow-up steps in the 20 percent of schools with the most classrooms in question.
"'The extent of the suspicious answer changes is stunning,' said Gregory Cizek, a University of North Carolina testing expert. He has studied cheating for more than a decade, but said he doesn’t know of another state that has detected so many potential problems."
The worst of the offending school districts are in or near Atlanta. Here's some background information.
Here's a list of elementary and middle schools on Georgia's severe list for CRCT cheating.
In case you were wondering: Yes, this is an instance of TNB, in which you can easily discern corruption, cheating, lies, and other forms of Black unworthiness to have power, position, or privilege in a White society. I present the racial breakdown of the students at each of the "severe list" schools. The percentages are from GreatSchools.org.
W=White, B=Black, H=Hispanic, A=Asian, M=mixed. Racial percentages less than 1% were omitted. Following the races is the percentage of classrooms in the school for which there is evidence of CRCT cheating.
The average racial composition for Georgia K-12 public schools is W46 , B38, H10, A3 , M3.
Atlanta Public Schools
* Adamsville Elementary: B97, H3, 27.8%
* Beecher Hills: B98, 42.6%
* Benjamin S Carson (Best Academy): B100, 30.0%
* Benteen Elementary: W1, B61, H37, 43.1%
* Blalock Elementary: B100, 66.7%
* Boyd Elementary: B98, M2, 56.1%
* C W Hill Elementary: B97, H2, 29.4%
* Capitol View: B95, H2, M2, 70.8%
* Cascade Elementary: B99, H1, 28.8%
* Cleveland Elementary: B97, H2, 26.1%
* Coan Middle S: B98, H2, 31.4%
* Connally Elementary: B99, M1, 70.5%
* Cook Elementary: W4, B92, H4, 40.7%
* Crim High School: B99, 33.3%
* D H Stanton Elementary: B97, H1, M2, 58.3%
* Deerwood Academy: B98, M2, 47.8%
* Dobbs Elementary: W2, B96, H1, 33.3%
* Dunbar Elementary: B99, 68.6%
* East Lake Elementary: B95, H3, 42%
* F L Stanton: B100, 83.3%
* Fain Elementary: B87, H13, 39.7%
* Fickett Elementary: B99, 51.4%
* Finch Elementary: B99, 48.0%
* Gideons Elementary: B98, 88.4%
* Heritage Academy: B98, H1, 28.2%
* Humphries Elementary: B97, H2, 46.7%
* Hutchinson Elementary: B78, H21, M1, 47.0%
* Kennedy Middle: B99, 53.2%
* Parks Middle: B97, M1, 89.5%
* Perkerson Elementary: B96, H2, M2, 66.7%
* Peyton Forest: B92, H8, 86.1%
* Scott Elementary: B96, H2, 68.0%
* Slater Elementary: B97, H3, 30.3%
* Thomasville Heights: B99, 39.1%
* Towns Elementary: B86, H13, 63.6%
* Turner Middle: B99, 54.0%
* University Community School: B99, 25.0%
* Usher Elementary: B99, 78.4%
* Venetian Hills: B99, 75.4%
* West Manor Elementary: B100, 54.9%
* White Elementary: B99, 47.4%
* Whitefoord Elementary: B97, H2, 59.3%
* Woodson Elementary: B99, 63.3%
* Brookdale Elementary: W2, B96, 27.1%
* Burke Elementary: B98, M1, 40.5%
* Whitesburg Elementary: W87, B8, H2, M5, 33.3%
This is the only White-majority school identified as "severe" for CRCT cheating in the State of Georgia.
* Lewis Academy: B95, M3, 56.9%
* North Clayton: B91, H3, A4, M2, 26.3%
* Cedar Grove Middle: B98, 35.0%
* Dekalb Path Academy: W2, B27, H62, A6, M3, 25.0%
* Dekalb Truancy: B90, H8, A2, 66.7%
* Glen Haven Elementary: B89, H7, M4, 44.9%
* Shadow Rock Elementary: B94, H2, M2, 40.0%
* Stoneview Elementary: W1, B91, H6, M2, 48.1%
Department Of Juvenile Justice
* Sandersville, race data not found, 25.0%
* Alice Coachman: W4, B95, H1, 31.7%
* Martin Luther: B99, 45.6%
* Morningside Elementary: W3, B96, 31.6%
* New Jackson Heights, race data not found, 57.9%
* Northside Elementary: W11, B87, M2, 52.2%
* Sherwood Acres: W18, B77, H3, A1, 25.0%
* Turner Elementary: W2, B96, H1, 39.4%
* West Town Elementary: B98, M1, 25.0%
* Gullatt Elementary: B95, H3, M2, 44.9%
* Hapeville Charter Middle: W4, B80, H11, A1, M4, 44.4%
* Woodland Middle: B88, H10, M1, 29.9%
* Gainesville Elementary: W8, B15, H69, A4, 25.6%
* Davis Elementary: B97, M2, 29.2%
* Muscogee Elementary: W3, B92, H2, M2, 51.9%
* New Quitman County Elementary/Middle: W21, B77, M2, 42.4%
* Hornsby Elementary: B97, H2, 45.1%
I wrote to Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue to commend him on his administration's decisive action against the cheating school officials in his state. However, I expressed surprise that he'd found even a single White school in which "severe" cheating had apparently occurred. I dared to suggest that Whitesburg Elementary in Carroll County had been "tossed in" the villain pile only to appease Black demagogues such as Jesse Jackson and Al Sharpton.
But I've since come to think that I was probably hasty. When you include the schools suspected of a lower level of tampering with CRCT scores, you do find a few mostly White school among them, and so it's possible that Whitesburg Elementary, with 33.3% of its classrooms flagged for test score manipulation, was simply the most egregious offender of the mostly White schools in Georgia in 2009.
It's when you set the amount of cheating at the mostly White schools beside the amount of cheating at the mostly Black schools that the moral difference in the races can really be seen. Whites cheat a little, once in a while. Blacks cheat a whopping whole lot, and it's their standard operating procedure. Racial difference are like that. It's not all versus nothing. It's more versus less. Depending on which racial difference we mean, it can be a matter of a little more versus a little less, significantly more versus significantly less, or incomparably more versus incomparably less.
Cheating up the scores on the CRCT is suspected for more than half of the classrooms at 27 of Georgia's public elementary and middle schools, all of them majority Black. Of these 27 schools, seven of them show signs of cheating at more than 75% of their classrooms. Meanwhile, not a single majority White school in Georgia is suspected of tampering at more than 1/3 of its classrooms, and only one of the majority White schools is suspected of anything near that level of CRCT cheating. And that's a good indication of the moral difference between Black and White.
The majority White school in Georgia with the highest rate of suspected classrooms is Whitesburg Elementary in Carroll County. The rate is 33.3%. There are 48 majority Black schools in Georgia with a higher percentage of suspected classrooms. There are 14 majority Black schools in Georgia in which the rate of cheating among the classrooms is at least twice as high as that in Whitesburg Elementary. Is there a moral difference between the races? Yes, indeed there is.
If no cheating had occurred, the CRCT scores would have been an indication of the mental difference between Black and White.
While failing to educate Black students up to standard levels of competency and then falsifying the students' CRCT scores to hide that fact, Atlanta school administrators were paying themselves excessively high salaries.
The Georgia state government, upon finding all this out, reacted.
Quote: Teaching certificates for more than a dozen educators in DeKalb, Fulton and Glynn counties and Atlanta have been suspended for their roles in previously uncovered alternations on students' tests. Former DeKalb principal James Berry was also criminally charged and sentenced to two years' probation.So Governor Perdue has been kicking some butt.
It seems likely that the cheating schools in the Atlanta School District wanted to justify their per-pupil rate of funding, which is 45% above the Georgia average. (It's $13150, as compared with $9089.) But the students in their schools were lousy performers, academically. So, to show "improvement" as well as the Adequate Yearly Progress required by the "No Child Left Behind" law, administrators at many of the Atlanta area schools began altering answers on students' CRCT forms, changing wrong answers to right ones. But state watchdogs caught them at it, so now they're in trouble.
Further to show that a lack of money has not been Atlanta Public Schools' problem, I've learned that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation gave $13.6 million to the Atlanta School District some years back, above their normal state funding, and just recently tossed them yet another $10 million. So compared with most other school districts in Georgia, the schools in the Atlanta area have been swimming in money. And unscrupulous school officials have been finding ways to pocket a lot of it by inflating their paychecks.
Incidentally, the annual salary of Beverly Hall, shown here:
was $389,314 in 2009. You can see where she gets the money to dress so well.
Here's a hoot. Atlanta Public Schools did an internal investigation (yes, you may laugh) and concluded that there was no "concrete" evidence of cheating at Deerwood Academy, which is one of their schools that got flagged as "severe" by the state because it had statistical indications of cheating in 47.8% of its classrooms.
It seems that a whole bunch of Deerwood Academy's (98% Black) students did poorly the first time they took the CRCT. They were retested, and suddenly all of them were Rhodes Scholars. The state had the impression that the improvement was too remarkable to be real and became suspicious that perhaps something improper was going on at Deerwood, which prompted APS hastily to volunteer to investigate itself.
I am imagining how the Atlanta Public Schools internal "investigation" was conducted. The "investigator" arrives at a suspected school and asks the principal and the teachers there whether any of them did any cheating on the CRCT lately. All of them say: No. The "investigator" turns around and goes back to the Atlanta Board of Education and reports not finding any "concrete evidence."
Did it occur to them that the same students whose scores on the CRCT had undergone dramatic improvement on the retest could be retested yet again—this time in a controlled setting with independent witnesses along—and the scores evaluated once again? No. Of course not. 'Cause the result would have been inconvenient to certain unscrupulous, overpaid school officials in the Atlanta area.
Now, read this ridiculous page.
Beverly Hall is getting major credit for transforming the Atlanta Public Schools into a "success story." She's the current darling of the liberal media.
Quote: Join District Leaders Podcast for an inspiring interview with 2009 National Superintendent of the Year Dr. Beverly Hall as she sits down with Arthur Griffin. Dr. Hall reveals her insights on the large task which faced her as she and her team transformed the Atlanta Public Schools into their new found standard of success.This looks like the same kind of fraudulent reputation-building that was used on Philip Emeagwali, another allegedly "great" Black person who turned out to be cheating himself up with deceptive public relations. The media were hailing him as the Black genius who invented supercomputers, the internet, and the idea of parallel processing—none of which was true. Emeagwali's only real claim to fame was winning part of a Gordon Bell prize, which is a relatively small prize that computer programmers can compete for.
Dr. Beverly Hall was named the 2009 National Superintendent of the Year on Feb 20th at the AASA’s National conference in San Francisco. She is the 22nd recipient of the award.
Dr. Hall candidly discusses how, after starting as a teacher in difficult neighborhoods, she found herself entering into school administration. She quickly moves into discussing the importance of national standards, essential strategies necessary for a school district’s success, and her experiences in her award-winning tenure as superintendent of the Atlanta Public School system Dr. Hall provides several insightful examples from her years of experience as leader and change agent in urban public schools.
Now here comes Beverly Hall, around whom we are hearing the same song and dance. Most likely, Beverly Hall has done nothing for the Atlanta Public Schools except preside over it while someone (possibly she) systematized the cheating up of Black students' scores on the CRCT and, perhaps, other standard tests of performance, while enjoying unearned credit, recognition, and rewards for educational accomplishments that never really happened.
Judging by her own words, Beverly Hall has a completely incorrect concept about what education does.
"My commitment to this district and this profession is guided by the belief that education is the great equalizer; it's the most reliable pathway to success."Which is completely wrong. If your education system is equalizing students, then it is doing a poor job of educating. People are not equals, and when every person is educated to the maximum of their potential, the result is a wide spread in educational outcome quality. That's why racial gaps exist in the first place, and it's why there are only two ways to make them go away: (1) remove all the education from the schools and water down all the tests to the point of vapidity, or (2) cheat during the grading of the tests.
Now, I must say a word about the Jewish media in general, and, as it happens, CBS News in particular. The present CRCT scandal is racially Black in its perpetrators to the extent of more than 96%. Of the 71 schools judged severe (more than 25% of classrooms suspected) for CRCT cheating, 68 are majority Black schools. Of the 27 schools in which most of the classrooms are suspected, all 27 are majority Black. An honest news agency would go to where the problem is thickest and engage in some responsible journalism.
But what does CBS News do? It goes into Cherokee County, a Georgia county in which absolutely no schools at all are suspected of CRCT cheating in 10% or more of its classrooms, and, probing with a fine-toothed comb and a microscope, eventually manage to find one White teacher who might have done some cheating too. Why did CBS do this? Because the Jews who run its corporation want Blacks to look as well as possible, and for Whites to seem as bad as possible. So they tend always to look for the exception, so that they can dress it up in deceptive spin and present it as if it were the rule.
Part 3. Perfect example of Truth in Conflict with Political Correctness:
"So high is the level of education in our country that Japan's is an intelligent society. Our average score is much higher than those of countries like the U.S. There are many blacks, Puerto Ricans and Mexicans in America. In consequence the average score over there is exceedingly low." Yasuhiro Nakasone, Prime Minister of Japan, 1986.
"There are things the Americans have not been able to do because of multiple nationalities there. On the contrary, things are easier in Japan because we are a monoracial society." Yasuhiro Nakasone, Prime Minister of Japan, 1986.
The first comment caused a loud and angry chorus of condemnation against Mr. Nakasone in the United States. The second remark was Mr. Nakasone's attempt to explain the reasoning behind his first statement, to show why what he said was the truth. Which missed the whole point. The politically correct do not care about the truth. They simply demand that all the world obey their ideological dictates, or else suffer as much as the PC ideologues can make them suffer. Mr. Nakasone did not realize that the only proper response for him to have made to the American liberals was "Kiss My Ass."
Mr. Nakasone was, of course, absolutely right in his analysis of why American public schools have been showing worsening performance ever since racial integration in the 1950s. Blacks have small and primitive brains. Mestizos, often called Latinos or Hispanics, have slightly better brains than Blacks do, but theirs are still significantly inferior to White brains. Asians rival Whites for intelligence. Blacks and Mestizos, as a rule, do not.
There is no such psychological phenomenon as "Stereotype Threat." That's a lame excuse. If someone were to stereotype me as stupid because I'm a racist hillbilly, I'd waste no time in proving that I'm not stupid and that my accuser is wrong. Anybody who whines that he can't do well because people don't expect him to is simply making excuses to cover up a deficiency. That's the truth.
The "improvement" in the educational outcomes in school districts having non-White majorities among their students is mostly illusory. This is almost certainly so in the Atlanta Public Schools, given the fact that cheating has been discovered there. And it's probably so everywhere else, too. Blacks have lower intelligence (in general), which means that they can't learn as fast, or go as far intellectually, as Whites can. If the CRCT worksheets in all Georgia school districts were honestly graded, you'd see the mental difference between Blacks and Whites in the scores. But, as it is, you can see something just as important. 96% of the "severe" cheating schools in Georgia have Black majorities. Only ONE school in Georgia, which BARELY earned the "severe" status, is majority White. In the distribution of cheating on the CRCT, you can see the moral difference between Black and White.